Primary sources are original, uninterpreted information. Scholars analyze primary sources in order to answer research questions. Examples of primary sources vary by discipline.
Examples in the humanities:
Examples in the social sciences:
Example in the sciences:
You will need some proficiency in ancient Greek to use this resource.
The TLG is a full- text database of virtually all ancient Greek texts surviving from the period between Homer (8th century B.C.) and A.D. 600, and a large number of texts deriving from the period between A.D. 600 and the fall of Byzantium in 1453. Scholia and Byzantine historiographical and lexicographical works are also included. For assistance with using this database, consult the extensive TLG help files. If you're having trouble navigating this resource, consult with your professor.
Always use the translation your professor recommends!
English translations of GLAM texts can differ markedly. Most translations that are freely available on the web are in the public domain (out of copyright), which means that they are much older and reflect neither more recent translation practices nor updated research on language and text variants.
GLAM uses a specialized, precise method of citation. The proper format for citing GLAM texts:
[Author], [Title] [Book/Section.(Poem, if applicable)].[Line #s cited/Paragraph #s cited]
Example of a citation in footnotes:
GLAM uses a series of abbreviations for works as well as journal titles.
Wiley's List of Abbreviations of Classical Works (.pdf)
The Oxford Classical Dictionary Online List of Abbreviations (use for Author names and their works)
ARTstor is a digital library of over a million images. For search tips specific to GLAM, see the ARTstor Classical Studies sheet.
The Archives & Special Collections collects, preserves, and makes available primary source material documenting life at the University as well as collections representing regional, national and international issues.
A small selection of material is listed below, for additional sources, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Douglas R. "Doug" Edwards papers, 1920-2007, document two archaeological excavations and surveys in which Professor Douglas Edwards of the University of Puget Sound served as director or consultant. Most of the material is related the Khirbet Qana (also known as Khirbet Kana or Cana) archaeological project in Israel, on the site of a historical village of Roman Galilee, eight miles northwest of Nazareth, on the north side of an important trade route, the Bet Netofa Valley. Other material is from the Chersonesos archaeological project (Black Sea Project), on a site in present-day Sebastopol, Ukraine. A small number of artifacts are included in the collection.
The Archives & Special Collections is located on the second floor of the Collins Memorial Library.
Set up an appointment: We are open to researchers by appointment Monday through Friday from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM. To make an appointment, email email@example.com or book online.
We look forward to assisting you!
Print copies of GLAM texts can be located via the library catalog.
Scholarly Editions of Greek and Latin Texts
Whenever possible, you should use scholarly editions of GLAM texts. A scholarly edition of a text typically will present and discuss variant versions; provide historical, cultural and linguistic context; and delineate the history of scholarly approaches to that text. Most scholarly editions will have an editor (or editors) and will be published by a university press (see catalog example below).
Collins Library owns many of the bi-lingual editions published by Harvard University Press as part of the Loeb Classical Library. Latin-English editions have red covers and Greek-English editions have green covers. Generally, the Loeb series provides reliable translations of Greek and Latin texts.
English translations of GLAM texts can differ markedly. Always use the translation your professor recommends.
The Perseus Digital Library provides an extensive collection of texts (in Greek, Latin, and also English translation) and images of art and archaeological artifacts. Note that the texts are older editions and translations that are out of copyright (so that they can be shared freely online), but they do not reflect subsequent textual scholarship and translation practices.
For best results, use the Perseus Hopper advanced search.
It also possible to browse the subcollections: