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ARTH 368: Japanese Art

What to Cite

You should always cite the following:

  • Quotations, regardless of the number of words
  • Paraphrases, in which you restate the ideas of others using your own words
  • Summary, which restates the ideas of others in a more concise way
  • Data, facts, and information unless they are considered common knowledge

The general rule is when in doubt, cite it.

Why Cite?

Citations are key to participating in the scholarly community. They are not only a way to respond to other scholars, but also to:

  • Give fair credit to others for their ideas, creations, and expressions.
  • Back up claims and statements.
  • Provide a way for an interested reader to learn more.
  • Support academic integrity.

Citing Works of Art

Example of a work of art seen in a museum, gallery or exhibition space:

Frankenthaler, Helen. Mountains and Sea, 1952. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Example of a work of art found in an image database:

Frankenthaler, Helen. Mountains and Sea, 1952. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. ARTstor, (accessed Februrary 1, 2011).

Example of a work of art found in a book:

Frankenthaler, Helen. Mountains and Sea, 1952.  In Helen Frankenthaler: A Paintings Retrospective by E.A. Carmean and Helen Frankenthaler, 12. New York: Abrams, 1989.

Academic Integrity

Start with these sources about academic integrity, but don't hesitate to ask a librarian or your instructor if you have further questions.

Citation Guides

The Chicago Manual of Style is most commonly used in art, but it's best to check with your instructor to determined what is preferred.

The library has two quick guides to the Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition):

There are also two research management tools used to organize and cite sources:

An online research management, writing and collaboration tool designed to help researchers easily gather, manage, store and share all types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies.

A knowledge management tool.

Formal Analysis

One common type of writing about art is formal analysis. This approach analyzes a work of art in terms of its visual components: line, texture, space, color, and shape. The following links provide overviews of formal analysis.

Get Help at CWL

The Center for Writing & Learning (CWL), located in Howarth 109, offers students opportunities to get help on all aspects of the writing process.  Services include:

  • Writing Advisors who are selected through a rigorous application process and who are specially trained to help students get started on a paper, organize their thoughts, or improve their editing skills.
  • Peer Tutors in a wide range of subjects who are nominated by professors in their disciplines and who are specially trained to help students individually or in small groups.
  • Language Partners who work with multilingual students to help them navigate the conventions and quirks of academic English writing.
  • Academic Consultants who are specially trained to help students improve their time management skills, organization, study skills, and test-taking strategies.

Sound Writing


Sound Writing is the official writing handbook on campus, written by student writing advisors and specifically tailored to the needs of Puget Sound students and their faculty.

In addition to supporting the development of successful academic writing skills, Sound Writing also includes sections on research methods, writing in the disciplines, and more.

The preliminary edition of Sound Writing provides help with three citation styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago (notes & bibliography).

Current Edition: August 2017