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FREN 430: Romanticism to Symbolism

Why should I use tertiary sources?

You might be wondering why a FREN 430 student would consult subject encyclopedias and other tertiary sources. The quick answer is that it can't hurt to make sure you have a good sense of how your research question fits in with other scholarly research that has been done--and the bibliographies at the end of encyclopedia articles are an efficient way to make sure you know who the scholars are who've been working on this topic.

Use the resources on this page to help you find biographical and background information, approach subjects that are new to you, or put a text or author in a larger perspective. 

Remember that tertiary sources are intended to fill in gaps in your knowledge or jumpstart your research; they should not be cited as scholarly secondary sources for your project.

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Featured Tertiary Sources

Cambridge Companions

Cambridge Companions are a series of authoritative essay collections that synthesize the most important aspects of a topic. Each volume is edited by a leading scholar in the field and offers essays written by experts. Look for Companions on specific authors, genres, themes or movements, and time periods.

The companions below contain essays relevant to 19th century French literature. Several more are on reserve.

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Online Reference Collections