For Biology 211, you will follow the citation format used by the journal Ecology.
See papers published in that journal [such as Dang et al. (2009)] for an example of how the citation format looks, both within the text and in the Literature Cited section. Below are additional selected examples:
Journal article with One author :
FORMAT: Last name, First initial. Second initial. Date. Title. Journal title volume number: inclusive page numbers.
EXAMPLE: Smith, V. H. 1986. Light and nutrient effects on the relative biomass of blue-green algae in lake phytoplankton. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43:148–153.
Journal article with two or more authors:
FORMAT: Last name and initial(s) of author, followed by Initials and then Last name of additional authors. Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal Volume number: Inclusive page numbers.
EXAMPLE: Elser, J. J., and J. Urabe. 1999. The stoichiometry of consumerdriven nutrient recycling: theory, observations, and consequences. Ecology 80:735–751.
FORMAT: Last name and Initial(s) of author, [followed by Initials and Last name of additional authors if any]. Year of publication. Title of book. Edition number if any. Name of publisher, City, State, Country of publisher.
EXAMPLE: Sterner, R. W., and J. J. Elser. 2002. Ecological stoichiometry: the biology of elements from molecules to the biosphere. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
The Center for Writing & Learning (CWL), located in Howarth 109, offers students opportunities to get help on all aspects of the writing process. Services include:
Sound Writing is the official writing handbook on campus, written by student writing advisors and specifically tailored to the needs of Puget Sound students and their faculty.
In addition to supporting the development of successful academic writing skills, Sound Writing also includes sections on research methods, writing in the disciplines, and more.
Sound Writing provides help with three citation styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago (notes & bibliography).
Current Edition: 2020
For this course, do not directly quote from the literature.Using quotes is not customary in scientific writing. Instead, use your references to support and contextualize your clains. References in scientific writing are used to:
Citations are key to participating in the scholarly community. They are a way to converse with other scholars, but they also: