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AFAM 101 | Dr. Livingston

Citing Sources

Citations are key to participating in the scholarly community. They are a way to converse with other scholars, but they also:

  • Give fair credit to others for their ideas, creations, and expressions.
  • Back up claims and statements.
  • Provide a way for an interested reader to learn more.
  • Support academic integrity.

Consult Citation Tools to learn more about different citation styles.  Collins Library also supports two knowledge management tools:  RefWorks and Zotero.

MLA Style

 For this course, you are required to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) style, a system of documentation that is widely used in the humanities. It uses parenthetical citations in the text and a list of works cited at the end of the paper.

MLA publishes a guide called MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for students writing and documenting academic work. The library has multiple copies which are listed in Primo and are shelved on the main floor.

The library has also developed a quick reference sheet which includes examples of the most common sources used in academic work.

Additionally, there are many great online sites that will assist you in interpreting and utilizing the various citation styles.  Here are a couple of good ones to be aware of.

Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide

Get Help at CWL

The Center for Writing & Learning (CWL), located in Howarth 109, offers students opportunities to get help on all aspects of the writing process.  Services include:

  • Writing Advisors who are selected through a rigorous application process and who are specially trained to help students get started on a paper, organize their thoughts, or improve their editing skills.
  • Peer Tutors in a wide range of subjects who are nominated by professors in their disciplines and who are specially trained to help students individually or in small groups.
  • Language Partners who work with multilingual students to help them navigate the conventions and quirks of academic English writing.
  • Academic Consultants who are specially trained to help students improve their time management skills, organization, study skills, and test-taking strategies.

Sound Writing


Sound Writing is the official writing handbook on campus, written by student writing advisors and specifically tailored to the needs of Puget Sound students and their faculty.

In addition to supporting the development of successful academic writing skills, Sound Writing also includes sections on research methods, writing in the disciplines, and more.

Sound Writing provides help with three citation styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago (notes & bibliography).

Current Edition: 2020