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BIOL 112: Evolution and the Diversity of Life

Citation Guidelines

The preferred citation style for this class is Ecology but you can choose another format like APA as long as you are consistent.

To follow the citation format used by the journal Ecology you can see papers published in that journal [such as Dang et al. (2009)] for an example of how the citation format looks, both within the text and in the Literature Cited section. Below are additional selected examples for proper citation style:

In-text Citations:

  1. Citations and sentence structure:
    “Travers (1999) found that fire can affect the pollen tube growth rate of annuals.”
    “Fire can affect the pollen tube growth rate of annuals (Travers 1999).”
  2. Number of authors:
    Papers with one author: Spell out surname and provide year (Jones 2004)
    Papers with two authors: Spell out both authors’ surnames and provide year (Jones and Smith 2004)
    Papers with three or more authors: Spell out surname of first author only and use “et al.” to indicate the list of other authors (Jones et al. 2003)


Journal article with One author :

FORMAT: Last name, First initial. Second initial. Date. Title. Journal title volume number: inclusive page numbers.

EXAMPLESmith, V. H. 1986. Light and nutrient effects on the relative biomass of blue-green algae in lake phytoplankton. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43:148–153.

Journal article with two or more authors:

FORMAT: Last name and initial(s) of author, followed by Initials and then Last name of additional authors. Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal Volume number: Inclusive page numbers.

EXAMPLE: Elser, J. J., and J. Urabe. 1999. The stoichiometry of consumerdriven nutrient recycling: theory, observations, and consequences. Ecology 80:735–751.


Sound Writing


Sound Writing is the official writing handbook on campus, written by student writing advisors and specifically tailored to the needs of Puget Sound students and their faculty.

In addition to supporting the development of successful academic writing skills, Sound Writing also includes sections on research methods, writing in the disciplines, and more.

Sound Writing provides help with three citation styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago (notes & bibliography).

Current Edition: 2020