The Center for Writing & Learning (CWL), located in Howarth 109, offers students opportunities to get help on all aspects of the writing process. Services include:
Sound Writing is the official writing handbook on campus, written by student writing advisors and specifically tailored to the needs of Puget Sound students and their faculty.
In addition to supporting the development of successful academic writing skills, Sound Writing also includes sections on research methods, writing in the disciplines, and more.
Sound Writing provides help with three citation styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago (notes & bibliography).
Current Edition: 2020
You need to properly format your references for your writing sample as follows, using the style of the Proceedings of the National Acdemy of Sciences or PNAS.
Notes: If there are more than five authors, provide first author's name followed by et al. Include volume and issue number as well as page numbers. If abbreviating the journal title, be sure to use proper abbreviations (see below). Cite in numerical order as they appear in the text. Include a DOI only if published online only or in press.
A few things to also keep in mind:
Journal Abbreviations: Notice how journal titles are sometimes abbreviated in citations? If you are going to abbreviate, you must make sure that you are using the PROPER abbreviation, as defined by a source like BIOSIS Serials Sources or CASSI Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index, which use the ISSN's standardized List of Title Word Abbreviations to come up with a standardized form. So the journal Plant Physiology is abbreviated Plant Physiol. and not Plant Phys. Likewise if you have only an abbreviation, sometimes you need to find out what the full title is in order to search for the journal or write out a complete citation. You can use a tool like the CASSI Search Tool (provided for free by the American Chemical Society) to look up a journal and find the accurate abbreviation, or vice versa.
Do you know what a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is? This succinct definition comes from the American Psychological Association:
As you read primary scientific papers, you will notice that authors do not use footnotes or direct quotes. Scientists give credit to others’ work or ideas by paraphrasing the contents and citing the original source within the text of the paper, to support and contextualize claims. References in scientific writing are used to:
-- put the study in context with other work done in the field (e.g., similar work on other organisms or in other habitats)
-- show the accepted use of study methods (e.g., show that other people have used the same methods with success)
-- incorporate ideas generated by other research (e.g., perhaps another researcher encountered something similar in their study and they suggested a possible reason for their results)