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SSI2-117 | Coming Out! The Gay Liberation Movement

Citing Sources

Citations are key to participating in the scholarly community. They are a way to converse with other scholars, but they also:

  • Give fair credit to others for their ideas, creations, and expressions.
  • Back up claims and statements.
  • Provide a way for an interested reader to learn more.
  • Support academic integrity.

Consult Citation Tools to learn more about different citation styles.  Collins Library also supports two knowledge management tools:  RefWorks and Zotero.

Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian Style

The Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian Style of citation use essentially the same format and documentation system, but the Turabian style differs somewhat in order to be more suitable for student work. Copies of the most recent editions of both guides are available at Collins Library.

You should always should check with your professor to make sure which citation style to use. See the Collins Library quick Chicago citation guide (Notes & Bibliography System) for commonly used types of sources, or consult the full book.

Citing Archival Material

Citing a primary source document from an archive varies depending on which citation style you are using. You'll want to include the same basic information that you usually would for the type of source you are citing (e.g. a newspaper, a letter, etc.), in addition to as many details as possible about its location in the archive to help fellow researchers locate that document.

Basic elements to include in your citations are:

  • the creator or name of the author, if known
  • title or description of the item,
  • date,
  • publication information, if published (specific item title, volume or section, page)
  • the name of the collection,
  • box and folder number,
  • the name of the archive
  • and the location of the archive. 

The last 3 elements in the list above refer to the document's physical location in a specific archive. In SSI2-117, we are using a digital archive to locate primary sources, so you'll also want to include Archives of Sexuality & Gender and a link to the source at the end of your citation. 

Here is an example:

"The Lavender Menace Strikes." Come Out 1, no. 4 (June-July 1970): 14. Lavender Menace, May 2, 1970-June 27, 1974 and undated, MS Folder No.: 07510, Lesbian Herstory Archives: Subject Files: Part 4: International Women's Day-Peace Camps. Lesbian Herstory Archives. New York, NY. Archives of Sexuality and Gender. Accessed February 27, 2021.

Sound Writing


Sound Writing is the official writing handbook on campus, written by student writing advisors and specifically tailored to the needs of Puget Sound students and their faculty.

In addition to supporting the development of successful academic writing skills, Sound Writing also includes sections on research methods, writing in the disciplines, and more.

Sound Writing provides help with three citation styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago (notes & bibliography).

Current Edition: 2020

Get Help at CWL

The Center for Writing & Learning (CWL), located in Howarth 109, offers students opportunities to get help on all aspects of the writing process.  Services include:

  • Writing Advisors who are selected through a rigorous application process and who are specially trained to help students get started on a paper, organize their thoughts, or improve their editing skills.
  • Peer Tutors in a wide range of subjects who are nominated by professors in their disciplines and who are specially trained to help students individually or in small groups.
  • Language Partners who work with multilingual students to help them navigate the conventions and quirks of academic English writing.
  • Academic Consultants who are specially trained to help students improve their time management skills, organization, study skills, and test-taking strategies.

Additional Resources

There are several additional reliable and thorough guides to citation styles available online: